Closed die forging is a forming process that uses specialized tools called dies to shape metal into the desired form. This technique has many advantages over other metal forming methods, including increased strength and precision of the finished product. Thus, it is widely utilized in the automotive, aerospace, and energy industries.

Depending on the component’s complexity, the forging process may involve multiple phases. The metal is subjected to high pressure at each stage to form a particular shape while repeatedly altering the grain flow and microstructure.  As a result, the final product has enhanced mechanical properties and increased strength compared to the original material.

Closed die forging is highly specialized, requiring a deep understanding of the material and the ability to control multiple variables to achieve the desired results. Here are four of the most important factors you need to consider:


The metal used for forging must have the right strength, toughness, and ductility to withstand the high compressive forces of the process. Some examples of metal for closed die forging are as follows:

  • Aluminum: This is a versatile material well-suited for closed die forging, providing a balance of strength, weight, and durability. However, it has a low yield strength, so the forging process must be carefully controlled to ensure it is not overstressed.
  • Carbon Steel: While more prone to corrosion and may be brittle at low temperatures, carbon steel has good forgeability. It is also relatively cheap and can be heat-treated to enhance its strength and hardness.
  • Alloy Steel: This is often forged to produce components for high-stress applications like gears, crankshafts, and axles. It also offers high strength and improved resistance to wear and corrosion.
  • Copper Alloy: Its high conductivity makes it ideal for forging electrical components, such as connectors and terminals. It also has exceptional strength and durability for high-stress applications.
  • Titanium: Due to its low melting point, titanium is suitable for producing complex, highly precise shapes. However, it is significantly more expensive than other metals.

Die Shape

In closed die forging, the die’s shape determines the product’s final look. Therefore, it must closely match the desired configuration of the workpiece to ensure that it is properly formed. It must also be designed to accommodate the specific material properties of the metal being used, such as its strength and ductility.

The material will be overstressed if the dies are too small or do not provide sufficient clearance for the material to flow. This will lead to cracking, warping, or other defects. Meanwhile, if the dies do not match the desired shape, the product will have inconsistent dimensions or be out of tolerance.

Forging Load

The forging load determines the amount of pressure applied to the metal during the process. Therefore, it is essential to ensure that the correct pressure level is used to produce a strong, durable component.

If the forging load is too low, the metal will not be ductile enough to take the shape of the dies. This results in a weak and low-quality product. Conversely, the metal will be overstressed if it is too high, leading to cracks, deformations, or other flaws.

Heating and Cooling Cycle

The heating and cooling cycle refers to warming the metal to a high enough temperature to make it malleable or plastic. Then, it will be cooled to solidify it in its new shape. The metal will crack if it is rapidly cooled and become too porous if it is cooled too slowly.

High-Quality Closed Die Forging With Cornell Forge

At Cornell Forge, we utilize a diverse range of forging methods to manufacture high-performing steel components that can handle even the toughest industrial conditions! Our expertise lies in manufacturing custom-made steel parts using premium quality stainless steel and steel alloys. Moreover, we offer value-added services like assembly and heat treatment to guarantee that each product is perfectly suited for its application.

Contact us to learn more about our services!

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