Bar Stock vs. Forging

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Bar Stock vs. Forging

Metal is used for many applications ranging from manufacturing vehicle parts and industrial equipment to building bridges and structures. These components begin as raw metal material that is molded or extruded into standard shapes and sizes, like sheets or bars, that are further formed or shaped into finished parts.

Here we will look at what bar stock metal is, the manufacturing processes that use it, and sample applications.

Bar Stock

Bar stock refers to a solid length of a raw metal material, such as carbon steel, alloy steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, copper, or other metal. Individual pieces of bar stock are commonly made by extrusion or by melting the metal and pouring it into molds. The resulting pieces have a uniform profile (e.g., round, square, rectangular, or hexagonal), and come in a variety of lengths.

What is Bar Stock?

Bar stock may be used as-is for some applications; however, additional metalworking processes are often used to create finished parts, components, or assemblies. These include CNC machining processes like sawing, milling, drilling, or grinding, as well as extrusion, roll forming, and forging.

Benefits of Bar Stock Material

Bar stock material is used in many manufacturing processes because it can be procured in uniform shapes, lengths, and metal content. This translates to efficient and repeatable production since the stock material is consistent.

Additional benefits include:

  • Structural support: It can be machined, shaped, or formed into many high-strength products including reinforcing bars, tubes, and channels.
  • High ductility and impact resistance: Many metals retain these properties even after machining or other processing.
  • Easy assembly: Bar stock can be formed into uniform components that can be easily assembled in a consistent manner.
  • Recyclability: Many metals can be recycled without losing strength, which contributes to sustainable manufacturing practices.
  • Versatility: Many types of metal are available in bar stock form for use in a range of applications.
  • Cost-efficiency: Manufacturers can purchase bar stock material in bulk and use automated or semi-automated CNC equipment, extrusion, expert forging processes, or roll forming for fast and consistent part production. This saves labor and cuts waste.

Applications for Bar Stock

Bar stock material is used in many industrial applications and operations. Steel bar stock can be machined into equipment parts, tools, structural members, and vehicle components. Aluminum can be extruded and formed with rollers to create long pieces with a consistent profile. Bar stock material can also be forged, as we’ll see below.


Forging is a metal forming process that can be used with a variety of metals, often beginning in bar stock form.

What is Forging?

In forging, a piece of metal, often bar stock, is cut to size and then heated to a high temperature. The metal becomes very hot and pliable but remains solid. Depending on the application, it is then hammered, pressed between dies, or pushed into a mold to change its shape. Cold forging is another method in which metal is hammered or shaped without being heated.

Benefits of Forging

Forging has many benefits, including:

  • Efficient material use: Forging is not a removal process so there is minimal material waste. Most components are close to their final shape, so there is less machining or other finishing.
  • Durability: The forging process tends to improve material fatigue, impact, and shear strength.
  • Cost-effectiveness: Using forging results in less waste and reduces the need for finishing processes.
  • Material versatility: Many materials can be forged including carbon steel, alloy or microalloy steel, stainless steel, titanium, and others.
  • Enhanced tensile strength: Forging results in a piece with high tensile strength because the material stays solid as its shape changes, forcing the grain of the metal to follow the shape of the component.

Applications for Forging

Forging is a versatile process for creating parts and components in complex shapes and many sizes. Because it imparts added tensile and fatigue strength to metals, it is well-suited to heavy-duty applications in many industries. Common applications include:

  • Aerospace and automotive engine and frame parts
  • Industrial and commercial machinery and tooling
  • Hand tools
  • Earthmoving, agriculture, and infrastructure equipment
  • Oil, gas, and mining equipment
  • Forestry and lumber tools and machinery
  • Military and defense applications

Your Choice for Custom-Forged Steel

Cornell Forge specializes in custom-forged parts made from high-quality carbon steel, alloy and microalloy steel, and stainless steel. Our capabilities also include assembly, heat treatment, painting and plating, hardness testing, and other value-added services to meet your requirements.

Please contact us or request a quote to discuss your next project with our team of forging experts.

When To Choose Impression Die Forging

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When to Choose Impression Die Forging

Forging is a metalworking process that has existed for thousands of years and remains an important manufacturing technique today. There are several forging methods available, each with advantages and disadvantages. One of the most popular methods is impression die forging, which involves pressing a metal piece between two dies to shape it accordingly.

Impression die forging can be an excellent solution for numerous applications. However, it is crucial to understand when it is the best option. This article will dive into this particular technique and explore the best applications for this forging method.

What Is Impression Die Forging?

Also called closed die forging, impression die forging is a metalworking process that shapes a piece of metal by pressing it between two dies containing the desired shape. The process begins with a metal piece — a billet or workpiece — that is heated until it reaches a plastic state. Then, the heated workpiece is placed between the two dies, and pressure is applied to deform the metal into the required structure.

One of the primary advantages of this forging technique is that it allows for precise control over the final shape of the component. The dies used are also designed to create the required form with high accuracy, which ensures that the final product meets the specifications. Additionally, the pressure applied during the process can help improve the metal’s mechanical properties, such as its strength and durability.

Best Applications for Impression Die Forging

Impression die forging is a versatile process that can produce a wide range of high-quality metal components. Some of the best applications for this technique include the following:

Off-Highway Components

The Off-Highway industry has a large variety of different equipment and components, which all require strength, durability, as well as near-net precision. These high performing components are safety critical items where an impression die forging is required to ensure there is no failure of performance.

Impression die forging can produce parts with high accuracy and consistency, which is essential in the engine and landing gear parts. The process also creates parts with a uniform grain structure and without porosity. This results in parts with improved mechanical properties and resistance to fatigue and failure.

Oil & Gas Components

Many components utilized in the Oil & Gas industry, including hammer unions, valve bodies, and other fittings, are manufactured using impression die forging. This technique creates superior strength and durability for the extreme conditions of Oil & Gas drilling and pumping.

Agriculture Components

Impression die forgings are heavily utilized in the agricultural industry due to the importance of having durable and reliable equipment that can perform for millions of cycles. Tractors and combines require forgings to withstand the impact involved in farming and earth moving.

Defense and Military Equipment

Defense and military applications using this forging technique include weapon components and vehicle parts. The high accuracy and consistency of the process allow for the production of complex and intricate details with precise tolerances. This makes it the best method for manufacturing gun barrels, ammunition, and missile components. Additionally, impression die forging can produce vehicle parts like suspension, steering, and drivetrain components.

Transmission Components

Impression die forging is widely used in transmission components due to forging’s superior strength to weight ratio which is an advantage in many industries including gear boxes, automotive , trucks, ATV’s, UTV’s, etc. These components operate under extreme conditions, such as high temperatures and torques, and must withstand cyclic loading and thermal stresses.

The above industries are only a few of the many that benefit from impression die forgings, such as power generation, aerospace, hardware and tools, motorcycle, and many others.

Partner With Cornell Forge for High-Quality Forging Services

Looking for a trusted partner for your next metal forging project? Cornell Forge is the answer! Our team of skilled professionals has decades of experience in the industry, guaranteeing that we know what we do. We also utilize the latest technologies to ensure the highest quality and precision of every project.

Contact us to learn more about how we can help with your next project, or request a quote today!

Concurrent Forging Design With the Customer

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Concurrent forging design has emerged as a popular approach for companies seeking to innovate and satisfy customer needs. This method involves real-time collaboration with customers during product development. It enables more tailored products and streamlined processes to reduce costs and accelerate time-to-market.

This article will delve into the significance of concurrent forging, which involves collaborating with customers in product development. By closely partnering with customers, companies can obtain valuable insights into their preferences and avoid expensive errors.

What Is Concurrent Forging Design?

Concurrent forging design is a product development approach involving real-time collaboration between companies and customers. It puts the customer at the forefront of the design process, aiming to produce a better product that more closely aligns with their needs. This way, the developers can identify and address the project’s pain points more efficiently.

This customer-centered approach encourages a dynamic and iterative process of product development. It is characterized by regular feedback sessions, testing, and adjustments, often involving cross-functional teams. These include representatives from different company departments, such as design, engineering, and marketing, as well as customers.

Advantages of the Concurrent Forging Approach

Concurrent forging offers numerous benefits to companies looking to innovate and stay ahead of the competition. Here are some of the most significant benefits of this approach:

Competitive Advantage

A competitive advantage pertains to a company’s strategic edge over its rivals in the market. Collaborating closely with customers can help companies gain a competitive advantage by improving the alignment of their products with consumer needs and preferences. This, in turn, can result in higher customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Improved Product Quality

Involving customers in the development process can aid companies in gathering important insights and feedback that can help improve product quality. This feedback can provide crucial information on customer preferences and expectations. This information can refine the product and make it more appealing to consumers.


The collaborative nature of contemporary forging promotes cross-functional teamwork and communication. This can spark new ideas and foster creativity, which may not have been considered otherwise. In addition, by continually refining and iterating on the product, companies can make them more innovative and better suited to the needs of their target audience.

Cost Savings

Concurrent forging can save costs by identifying design flaws early and improving the efficiency of the product development process. This can help the company and the customer save money on project costs while enabling a more effective resource allocation.

Concurrent Forging Design at Cornell Forge

Concurrent forging design with the customer is a cost-effective way to produce high-quality forgings. Cornell Forge has design engineers and metallurgists who can assist with optimizing the forging shape, raw material selection, and final properties required. Optimizing involves finding the best possible configuration among many potentially viable structures for a given use.

We seek to minimize machining stock, develop forged surfaces to eliminate machining operations, and minimize draft angles to reduce the required machining time. With modeling and simulation expertise, our engineers can work with customers to achieve the best optimization for the product shape and cost.

Our in-house metallurgists can also provide the optimal raw material, considering the strength-to-cost ratio and avoiding unnecessary expenses for properties not required. The strength achieved by the material through the forging process improves grain flow and stability. This provides better quality than casting which introduces porosity and requires a larger part or more expensive material.

Choose Cornell Forge for Exceptional Forging Services

Cornell Forge is a trusted ISO 900:2015 certified company specializing in forging complex metal parts! Our highly skilled workforce can handle even the most challenging projects while maintaining consistent quality and reliable delivery times. We also offer globally competitive pricing to ensure our customers receive the best investment value.

With a legacy of 90 years of excellence in the forging industry, you can trust us to deliver the highest quality products and services to meet your unique requirements! Contact us or request a quote today to learn how we can assist with your forging needs.

What To Look For in Your Stainless Steel Forging Manufacturer

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Stainless steel is utilized in various industries and is most sought-after in forging applications. Alloy forgings are designed to be extremely durable and resistant to corrosion and heat. Thus, stainless steel’s best properties — corrosion resistance and strength — are leveraged and magnified by forging.

As the demand for stainless steel grows, the number of companies offering stainless steel forging services is bound to increase. However, this high-precision process requires a high level of manufacturing expertise and experience. Hence, you must consider several factors when choosing the best forging manufacturer.

Stainless Steel Forging and Its Applications

Since forging produces grain flow that conforms to the shape of the workpiece, stronger items can be produced by forging than by other techniques like machining or casting. In addition, stainless steel is strengthened and made more durable during the forging process, creating robust components ideal for harsh environments or applications.

Alloys made of stainless steel often have chromium as a secondary component, making up between 4% and 30% of the alloy’s overall composition. In addition, carbon, aluminum, titanium, copper, nickel, and other elements are frequently included in these alloys.

Several types of industrial-grade stainless steel alloys are utilized in various applications, including the following:

  • Architecture and construction
  • Chemicals and pharmaceuticals
  • Energy and industry
  • Medical equipment manufacturing
  • Shipbuilding and marine engineering

Qualities of a Good Stainless Steel Forging Supplier

To determine whether a steel forging company is the best partner, it’s crucial to consider product quality, price, availability, dependability, and customer service. Other qualities you should look for include the following:

High Level of Standards Compliance

A reliable steel forging supplier can deliver custom services compliant with industry standards. They must offer competitive prices while delivering unmatched, high-quality, and undamaged products on time. Working with someone capable of doing all these helps increase your manufacturing ROI and streamline your operations.

Effective Collaboration Skills and Processes

Constant and clear communication with a forging company saves you time, minimizes errors, and allows adjustments in areas and circumstances that require it. It also ensures that you receive your orders on time and with the highest quality, avoiding delays in your production. A forging provider that respects your time restrictions and deadlines can also save you a lot of money in the long run.

Proficiency and Industry Expertise

The ideal steel forging provider can serve as a resource for information and advice. For instance, they can assist clients in evaluating new production techniques, such as switching from casting to forging, where applicable. When relationships are built and nurtured to this level, you are guaranteed consistent, reliable, and high-quality components every time.

Cornell Forge: The Right Stainless Steel Forging Manufacturer for You!

Cornell Forge is an ISO 9001:2015 and PED certified business that exceeds customer expectations with dedicated and high-quality work at every production level — from RFQ to the order’s delivery! Our team has a wide range of capabilities for your most challenging stainless steel forging needs.

Contact us to start working with our forging experts today!

Hammer Forging vs. Press Forging


Forging is a process of forming and manipulating metal workpieces. Depending on the forging method, the metal can be formed warm, hot, or cold. Here we will describe the features and benefits of two main types of forging: hammer forging and press forging. Understanding these methods can help you determine the ideal forging process for your project.forging equipment

Hammer Forging

Also called drop hammer forging, hammer forging consists of inserting metal into a die and hammering it into a desired shape. This method uses fast and heavy blows to shape the workpiece, which can be worked hot or at room temperature. Hammer forging offers several benefits, including:

  • Uniformity: Hammer forging eliminates air pockets or voids that could otherwise cause failures under stress or impact. The grain size uniformity of hammer forged parts prevents weakness, removes porosity, and minimizes defects.
  • Predictable grain structure: When the metal is put in the die and hammered into place, the grain structure conforms to the part’s shape. An expert metalworker can optimize the grain flow for maximum reliability and strength. Eliminating exposed grain ends can also protect the workpiece from corrosion and fatigue.
  • Faster process: Compared to press forging, hammer forging can have quicker overall production rates based on the potential to run parts in higher multiples.

Press Forging

Press forging applies continuous pressure to manipulate the interior and exterior of the metal workpiece. This process can be done on cold or hot metal. The benefits of press forging include:

  • Cost savings for high-volume production: While the cost of setting up some automated press forging lines can be higher, it is more cost-effective in the long run. At high volumes, a press forging operation will eventually yield parts at a lower cost per piece than hammer forging.
  • Less machine stock: Press forgings are typically more near net, especially for thicker parts, due to requiring fewer draft angles.
  • Easily controlled strain rate: With press forged parts, a knowledgeable metalworker can easily control strain rate, which is the amount of deformation over time.

Alloy Forging Services at Cornell Forge

Cornell Forge has nearly a century of expertise in the forging industry. Our facility can accommodate alloy and carbon steel workpieces weighing as much as 100 pounds and stainless steel workpieces weighing up to 30 pounds. We provide a wide selection of tooling and design services, including concurrent engineering, in-house tooling, optimal forging design, and metallurgical consultation. We can also perform various value-added services, such as assembly, hardness testing, Magnaflux inspection, shot blast cleaning, painting, plating, heat treating, machining, and sawing.

We are an industry leader and serve major markets, including the off-highway, agriculture, and construction industries. Contact us to speak with a representative about our forging capabilities or request a quote today.

Forged vs. Cast – What’s the Difference?

Cornell Forge is an ISO 9001:2015-certified company that specializes in forging design, tooling, and metal forging services to create custom-engineered products and parts. We offer a diverse array of metal forging capabilities, including closed die hot forging, as well as finishing and value-added services that simplify your supply chain. Our turnkey forging solutions are part of our commitment to excellent customer service. 

If you need custom-made metal parts, Cornell Forge is here to help during every stage of design and production. Start the process by determining whether forging or casting processes are a better fit for your specifications. The difference between casting and forging comes down to the shaping process. Casting reduces metals to a molten form while forging shapes the metal workpiece while in a solid state.

Advantages of Forging Metal

hot forging

Forging processes involve rolling, pressing, hammering, or otherwise shaping metal billets while still in a solid form into a precise shape through mechanical force. The heating and deformation process refines the metal’s internal grain structure by allowing metallurgical recrystallization to occur, giving a uniform structure throughout the metal form. This process strengthens the metal and makes it more resistant to impact and shear damage.

The internal grain structure conformity is the core benefit of forged metal that gives it many of its advantages over cast and plate metal components. Because the flow of the grain aligns with the geometry of the shape, it becomes very tough and resistant to damage.


Here’s a quick breakdown of the advantages of forged metal to consider when choosing the right metal forming process for your component order:

  • Toughness: The material is more resistant to physical damage, including impact damage, and deformation.
  • Resistance to Wear: The grain structure aligns with the form of the piece, reducing the risk of wear.
  • Strength: Forged metals have more relative strength than cast and plate metals, even when the parts are formed using the same alloy. 
  • Reduced Likelihood of Defects: Other processes may result in metal pieces with shrinkage and cold pour issues, cavities within the cast, or porosity.

When you need solid, hardworking, and strong parts that you can rely on for rugged industrial or commercial applications, the forging process is an excellent option.

Advantages of Casting Metal

Forging vs Casting Metal
In metal casting, molten metal is poured directly into an existing mold, where it cools and hardens into the mold’s shape. Casting processes can use a wide variety of different mold types depending on the size of the order and the complexity of the part. While metal casting has been used for centuries, today’s manufacturers generally reserve this process for parts that are too large or unwieldy for metal forging. Casting is a superior method for more complex geometries that are difficult to achieve through the application of force alone.

At Cornell Forge, we can forge simple and complex parts that are up to 18 inches long and 100 pounds in weight. Some die forgings can even be made that weigh up to 5000 pounds or more. However, casting is often more appropriate for parts of this size. 


Metal casting is a suitable alternative to forgings in some circumstances because of these unique advantages:

  • Fewer Size and Complexity Restrictions: Castings can be done for parts of virtually any size or complexity level.
  • Metal Options: Castings can be made with a wider range of specialty alloys because chrome, nickel, and molybdenum can be more easily incorporated into the molten metals during the casting process.
  • Low-Volume Production Capabilities: Castings can cost-effectively produce small production runs, especially because the tooling is cheaper than that for equivalent forging dies.

Casting vs. Forging: Which Is Better?

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Forged vs. Cast - What’s the Difference?

Both forging and casting processes can be used to create high-quality metal parts. However, each method works best for different types of products based on the size, metal composition, order volume, and other factors.

Because casting involves pouring molten metal into molds, it can be used to create highly complex parts. Casting processes can also accommodate products made from complex alloys or which weigh up to 200 tons upon completion. Forging processes use hammering and mechanical force to form metal into a certain shape, which makes the finished parts tougher, stronger, and more shatter-resistant. Overall, if your part can be forged, your end product will be stronger and more durable. But realistically, forging is not a viable option for every component, and casting is an excellent production method in these cases.

Why Choose Cornell Forge for Forged Parts

Cornell Forge is a leading provider of high-quality forged parts that we produce using our in-house manufacturing services. We provide quality assurance during every stage of production, and we have been a trusted name in the industrial forging market for more than 90 years. Contact us today to learn more about our forging capabilities or request a quote to start your order.